21 April 2010


31. Dalem Bedudu = also known as Maya Denawa, the cruel tyrant king who ruled Bali 1343 AD. He banned religious festivals, demolished temples and killed all people who worshiped the Hindu gods. Nowadays his face is used as a puppet in Balinese dancing. The Balinese claim he had a head of a boar and body of a human. He could change into a various types of creatures. He was located in Balingkang, a few kilometers north of Batur Lake. He also ruled areas such as Makassar, Sumbawa, Bugis, Lombok and Blambangan. He was a descendent from the Hindu gods Daitya and Danu. He got killed by the god Indra, because he was an evil tyrant who was erasing the citizens’ belief in gods. When he died the Galungan Holiday was created to celebrate this. It is one of the most important holidays in all of Bali. In this holiday you usually decorate your house with Penjors. This day is celebrated once every six months; the Balinese almanac is named after this day. - Niko Lekhraj & Aakarsh Goyal

32. Princess Gunapriyadharmapatni and King Udayana = Princess Gunapriyadharmapatni was a Javanese Queen also known by the name of Queen Mahendradatta. She was married to the Balinese King Udayna Warmadewa. King Udayna was a Buddhist king who, while leading a military expedition, established a Buddhist government in Bali. Together, King Udayna and Queen Mahendradatta had one son, Erlangga, in 1001 AD in Sanur, Bali. When Prince Erlangga reached the age of 21, he returned to Java from Bali, where he built a powerful kingdom. Prince Erlangga ruled Bali as well as Java and introduced the Balinese political and cultural contact to the Javanese. In the 11th Century AD, Queen Mahendradatta was accused of practicing witchcraft. Her husband, King Udayana, was sent her into exile. During this period of time, she vowed revenge for her suffering caused by her husband. Later on, when Erlangga ruled the plague struck Indonesia in mid-1665. People blamed the plague on Udayana and said that it was he who sent Mahendradatta to exile, so she laid a curse on Bali. When Mahendradatta died she was known as Rangda, the evil witch queen. The dance known as Calonarong expresses the feelings and emotions of Indonesians during the time of the plague – Kamilla Jamal and Sara Khan

33. Rangda = Rangda is a famous Balinese mythology character that is used in dances. She is known as the Demon queen of Leyaks (leyaks are humans under the possession of black magic). She has tusks on her face, bulging eyes and six inch long fingernails. When she dances, she leaps around, her tongue rolling around widely. The Rangda myth claims she feeds on little children and blood from pregnant ladies. She is said to have originated in 11th century from the Java queen Mahendradatta, who was exiled by the king for practicing witchcraft. The legend is still famous Everywhere in Bali today, especially in Barong dances (Barong is her opposite, the good spirit). Tourists from all around the world com to see her dances. – Cato Habers & Darlene Utomo

34. Erlangga = also spelled as “Airlangga,” he was born in the year 989 AD, the son of a Balinese king and Javanese queen. He grew up in the eastern Java. When he was sixteen one of his father’s allies committed treason against the Medang, which was the ruling power at the time of Java and Bali, and his father was killed in the battle. Soon after he escaped into the jungle and became a hermit. After several years in the jungle he began to reunite the areas that had formerly been ruled by his father and the Medang. He became king of Java in eleventh century. Airlangga spent over 2 decades expanding his kingdom and he died in 1076. - Ben Colmey and Dominic Ricotta.

35. Ngurah Rai = Gusti Ngurah Rai lived from 1917-1946. Ngurah Rai was a freedom fighter, an army officer. He led a group of 94 soldiers to fight the Dutch, who were there because they controlled Bali. Ngurah Rai tried to get Bali back from the Dutch control, but he failed. After the defeat of Ngurah Rai, fighting against Dutch weakened and Bali was under Dutch control until 1949. Ngurah Rai and his 94 soldiers fought at West of Marga. They fought on November 20th 1946. He is famous because he died in battle trying to fight the Dutch and save Bali. His face is on the RP. 50,000 money note and there is a statue of him in Bali. - Sarah Shaker and Claire Mulder

36. Majapahit = an ancient Javanese empire responsible for conquering the island of Bali in 1343, introducing their Hindu culture to the Balinese. The Majapahit Empire was the largest empire in South-East Asia. The king of the Majapahit Empire that conquered Bali was named Gajamada and he ended the rule of Balinese King Dalam Bedudu. Dalam Bedudu was known as the atheist king. Although the Balinese didn’t like the Majapahit rule, they didn’t like Dalam Bedudu and were happy he died. Muslim rule defeated the Majapahit Empire in the 16th century. Majapahit rule had a strong influence on the culture of Bali and left many aspects of their culture behind. Some of the things they left behind were Wayang Kulit (a shadow puppet), the Hindu religion, architecture, paintings, dance, theater, and sculpture. The few remaining Balinese that didn’t follow Majapahit parts of Balinese culture were called Bali Aga. - Will Sipher & Euan Janssen

37. Denpasar = It is Bali’s capital city and it means “by the market”. Denpasar is located on the southeast part of the island and is also near the Ngurah Rai Airport. It has an approximate population of 500,000. Some of Denpasar’s population comes from immigrant groups like Chinese, Arab and Indians. Most of Bali’s government buildings are located there. It was conquered by the Dutch in the year 1906, also the royal palace was looted and razed by the Dutch. Today the central square “Taman Puputan” has a statue of the 1906 war. Denpasar became the capital city of Bali in 1958. – Christian Munoz and Chris Smits

38. Singaraja = Located in North Central Bali, it is linked to other cities on the island by roads. The population is 133,784. It was one of the most important cities during the Dutch rule and was the capital of Buleng regency, in the Lesser Sunda Islands until the 1960’s. Singaraja was a center of trade for rice, and coffee. Crafts include sandstone carving, weaving, baskets, fan making, and leather work. The city’s population includes Muslims, Buddhists, and Christians. The city has a historic library, the Gedong Kirtya, along with older Hindu Temples. The name Singaraja means the “Lion City.” Today it is a popular sight for tourists, as Lovina Beach is 7 miles West of Singaraja. - Kaelyn Do & Alice Corsi

39. Bali Temples = Temples are a place of worship, usually for the Hindu and Buddhist religions. Bali has a lot, of which a few are very significant. There are three that are definitely worth mentioning such as Pura Besakih, Tanah Lot and Gunung Kawi. Pura Besakih is known as the “Mother Temple” and is over 1000 years old. It is said to be the only temple where a Hindu of any caste can worship, and is placed below a 1000m mountain called Mount Agung. It is named after the Dragon God, believed to inhabit the mountain. Tanah Lot is a beautiful temple perched on top of a huge rock off the southwest coast of Bali. It was built in the sixteenth century and is to the west of Denpasar, the capital of Bali. It is also known as the Taman Ayun Temple. Gunung Kawi is located on the River Pakrisan, north of the city Ubud. It is nicknamed “Mountain of the Poets” because of the inscriptions on the inside and outside walls. - Clara Linanda and Helen Steneker

40. Gunung Agung & Gunung Batur = Mount Agung is the tallest and holiest mountain on the island of Bali. Agung is 3,142 meters tall. It is also known as, the “Navel of the World” and is located on the East side of Bali, Indonesia. The last eruption of Mount Agung occurred in 1963. At the base of Mount Agung is the mother temple of the village Besakih. In 1963-64 when the volcano erupted, it has missed the temple by a few yards because the gods did not want to destroy a monument of the Balinese religion and culture. Gunung Batur, the second tallest mountain in Bali, is 1,717 meters tall. Its last eruption was in 1917 and again on 1926, and it is located northwest of Mount Agung. The Balinese people believe that Mount Batur is sacred because both times that it erupted, it spared an important temple. - Gyan Sidhu & Angelica Orr